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Highcliffe St Mark Primary School

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Our Phonics Learning

Phonic Phase 2 - Basic Code

Glossary of phonics terms:

Sound talking is when you say each sound in a word separately like a robot might i.e. h - o - p . The children are encouraged to blend the word together to find out what the word is and, in this case, show they understand by doing the action!

Phonemes are the sounds that letters make. I.e. the letter s makes the sound sss

Graphemes are the way in which the phoneme is represented i.e. the written letter

Segmenting is when you sound out a word by reading the graphemes i.e. m-u-d

Blending is when you put the sounds back together to read the word i.e. m-u-d = mud

Tricky words are words which cannot be decoded therefore we cannot sound them out- they just have to be learnt by sight

Digraphs are two letters that make one sound i.e. sh and ar in sh-ar-k

Trigraphs are three letters that make one sound i.e. igh in n-igh-t

Blends and Clusters Blends or clusters are not same as diagraphs or triagraphs which makes one single sound. Blends like 'sl' has two sounds 's' and 'l'. The knowledge of blends or clusters helps children to quickly identify them when blending and segmenting adjacent consonants in words and apply this skill when reading and spelling.

Useful websites and Apps:


These websites have some games to help your children with Phase 1, 2, 3 and 4 Letters and Sounds: Letters and Sounds - free resources for phonics teaching


Phonics Bloom Logo




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Alpha Blocks





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Free E-Books and linked games!





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